farmer with produce10. How is climate change effecting Africa?

The threat lies in the fact that the current climate as we know it will change drastically in a very short period especially in Africa. Agriculture is undoubtedly the most important sector in the economies of most non-oil exporting African countries and the Continent's population depending on the sector for their livelihood. Production is subsistence in nature with a high dependence on the rain. The debate on climate change and its impacts on agriculture is therefore very crucial to the very survival of the continent and its people. The continent is particularly susceptible to climate change because it includes some of the world's poorest nations.

The implications are enormous. The ecosystems that provide most of the natural resources and on which we rely so much in this country, will change causing poor crop harvests, fisheries, death and possible extinction of plants and animals, and severe changes in weather patterns. This will have huge impact on agriculture, business, health and infrastructure in the Continent.

Africa already suffers severe droughts in certain areas. With the onset of global warming, this is only going to get worse. The water flow down the Nile River in Egypt would dry up, which is devastating as ten other African countries depend on this water. Lake Chad is also drying up. Many African people rely on agriculture, so this makes them even more vulnerable. Floods are also predicted to become more frequent.

Reduction in crop yields and agriculture productivity: There is a growing evidence that in the tropics and subtropics, where crops have reached their maximum tolerance, crop yields are likely to decrease due to an increase in the temperature. Limit the availability of water: It is expected that the availability of water in most parts of Africa would decrease as a result of climate change. Particularly, there will be a severe down trend in the rainfall in Southern African countries and in the dry areas of countries around the Mediterranean Sea. An increase in temperature and a change in the climate throughout the Continent are predicted to cause recurrent droughts in most of the region and reduction in soil fertility.

An increase in temperature is likely to reduce soil moisture, moisture storage capacity and the quality of the soil, which are vital nutrients for agricultural crops.

Availability of human resource: Climate change is likely to cause the manifestation of vector and vector born diseases, where an increase in temperature and humidity will create ideal conditions for malaria, sleeping sickness and other infectious diseases that will directly affect the availability of human resources for the agriculture sector A major challenge facing Africa is to increase agricultural production and achieve sustainable economic growth; both are essential to improving food security.

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